Sex with camels
Viral RNA was extracted from nasal, rectal, milk and urine samples using QIAmp viral RNA minikit (Qiagen, Dusseldorf, Germany).
RNA was then tested for the presence of MERS-Co V RNA using the up E real-time RT-PCR assay as described previously.
Nasal and rectal swabs, urine and milk samples were tested for the presence of MERS-Co V while milk and serum samples were tested for the presence of MERS antibodies.
Locations included quarantines, markets, abattoirs, free-roaming herds and farmed breeding herds.
The overall seroprevalence was 71% and RNA detection rate was 15%.
Furthermore, the majority of traded camels originate from African countries and those have not been well studied.
Hence, we designed a systematic active surveillance system to study MERS-Co V in camels, both imported from Sudan and local, in Egypt.Sampling locations are shown in Figure 1 and included a government-operated quarantine at the border with Sudan, two camel markets and camel abattoirs where imported camels mainly from Sudan, Somalia and Ethiopia are found.